初窥 SDRAM

前言

上次挖的坑现在来填,在我们把 SDRAM 控制器接进 AHB 总线之前,我们先来设计一个 SDRAM 控制器。

引用知乎上看见的一段话:

在做这个 SDRAM 控制器之前,博主有一个疑问,对于学生来说,是否有必要学习用纯 Verilog 写一个 SDRAM 控制器?因为目前广告厂(X)和牙膏厂(A)都有了 DDR IP Core,而 SDRAM 的控制 IP 更是漫天飞舞,对于要实现一个应用可以直接调用 IP Core,只需要对其接口操作即可。对于开发者来说,与其费时费力用 Verilog 去写一个性能差而且老的 SDRAM 控制器,还不如直接调用官方经过打磨的更为先进 IP Core。所以博主特地来号称平均学历 211,平均月薪 7、8 万的知(bi)乎提出了这个问题,得到的解答博主总结大致如下。

对于学生这个身份来说,应该是要以学习为主要目的,虽然说目前企业为了加快项目进度会直接使用 IP Core,但是我们以学为本的初衷不应该为了避过难点而直接不去尝试,就比如我们刚开始学 Verilog 的时候肯定都会写过分频器,那么为什么不直接去学更简单精度更高 PLL IP Core 呢?从一个新手逐渐成长成一个老手都是由简单到复杂,由基础到提升,这是一个必经的过程。这也就是很多高校还是会开设汇编语言编写单片机的课程,学 FPGA 全用 IP Core 和学单片机全用库函数是一个道理。这是其一。

第二,写一个 SDRAM 控制器还是可以锻炼一些典型的技能。

  • 看官方文档
  • 根据时序图设计 SDRAM 逻辑,使用状态机
  • 配合仿真模型写测试仿真
  • 调试,提高频率,让你的 SDRAM 跑的更快
  • 研究时序约束

这一套做下来,你就可以提高一个层次了,经历过和没经历过是有质的区别。其实博主在提问的时候心中早已有了答案,只是还没有足够的信念去完成这个事情,当时看到很多业界前辈都支持去写的时候,博主心里也是比较开心的。之前博主已经学一些 SDRAM 的基础知识,只是当时水平还不够,没有坚持下去,心里一直不甘。趁着最近两个月之内没有什么事情要忙,所以决定要再次死磕 SDRAM。

正文

SDRAM 基本介绍

关于 SDRAM 的基本概念,在这再引用《终极内存指南》这篇文章中的一段话:

SDRAM(Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory),同步动态随机存储器。同步是指 Memory 工作需要同步时钟,内部的命令的发送与数据的传输都以它为基准;动态是指存储阵列需要不断刷新来保证存储的数据不丢失,因为 SDRAM 中存储数据是通过电容来工作的,大家知道电容在自然放置状态是会有放电的,如果电放完了,也就意味着 SDRAM 中的数据丢失了,所以 SDRAM 需要在电容的电量放完之前进行刷新;随机是指数据不是线性依次存储,而是自由指定地址进行数据的读写。

下面再简单看一下 SDRAM 的内部结构。
对于 SDRAM 的内容结构,就如同 Excel 的表格(如下图所示),即一个单元格就是一个存储地址。要确定具体的存储位置,只需要知道行地址(row-address )和列地址(column address )即可。
excel

一个常见的 SDRAM 中的一个 BANK 就有如上图所示的 13 行 9 列,通常一个 SDRAM 中有 4 个 BANK,那么 SDRAM(DDR 类似)的计算公式就是:

SDRAM(DDR容量) = 2^(row-address) × 2^(column-address) × 2^(bank-address) × datawidth
= 2^(row-address) × 2^(column-address) × bank数 × datawidth

以 DE10-LITE 开发板板载的 SDRAM-IS42S16320D-7TL 为例,标称为 64MB。根据芯片手册(如下图所示)我们可以看见其行地址宽度为 13,列地址宽度为 9(此时数据位宽为 32),则根据公式我们可以算出其容量确实为 64MB

2^13 × 2^9 × 4 × 32 = 536870912 b
⇒ 536870912 b ÷ 1024 = 524288 kb
⇒ 524288 kb ÷ 1024 = 512 Mb
⇒ 512 Mb ÷ 8 = 64 MB

SDRAM 芯片介绍

既然都打开了芯片手册(IS42S16320D-7TL),那就不要关上了,那我们再来看看芯片手册中的那些重要参数。
首先我们在第一页就可以看到它的刷新周期是 64ms(这个重要参数将在后面进行具体介绍)

在上文中我们已经提到了该芯片的行地址和列地址,我们需要注意的是其行列地址是复用的,其他相关引脚的功能描述都有介绍。

SDRAM 的初始化及寄存器的配置

SDRAM 初始化时序图如图所示,首先上电后,电源 Vcc 及 CLK 稳定时间至少 100us,然后对所有 BANK 进行预充电(precharge),经过 tRP 后给 auto refresh 命令,再经过 tRC 后再次 auto refresh 命令,再进过 tRC 后进行模式寄存器的配置。

那么以上命令是如何实现的呢,当时就是给与相应管脚的高低电平控制,由此实现,那么这就回到了我们数电的功能真值表(在之前我们就有提到过,数字 IC 终归是数字电路,不要把它搞成了编程项目),我们将下图的真值表以使用顺序总结为表格形式,方便接下来的 RTL 表述。

CMD CS RAS CAS WE
Precharge 0 0 1 0
Auto-Refresh 0 0 0 1
Nop 0 1 1 1
Mode 0 0 0 0

在了解到命令描述后我们还需要注意时间的间隔,在时序图中只告知了我们 T = 100us,而其余的 tRP,tRC,tMRD 均未告诉我们,这是因为通常一个芯片手册中有多种型号的芯片,因此我们需要去查看 AC characteristic 表格,根据芯片型号去确定时间。我们的板载芯片型号为 IS42S16320D-7TL,因此我们选择 -7 对应的时间,则 tRP = 15ns,tRC = 60ns,tMRD = 14ns

接下来我们就要进入到模式配置,模式配置的配置说明如下图所示:

A0-A2 为突发长度控制,即表示单次读或者写的时候的数据『长度』,本次突发长度参数我们设为 010。A3 突发模式通常设为 0。A4-A6 为潜伏期控制,专门针对读命令时,当给出读命令后,若有设置 CAS latency 则会延迟相应的周期数后给出数据,本次潜伏期参数我们设为 011,A9 突发模式通常设为 0。则最终我们初始化设置参数为 13’b0_0000_0011_0010

至此,我们便可以开始着手设计我们的初始化模块了,首先时序图上 T = 100us Min,则我们取 200us = 200,000ns 在不经过 PLL 的前提下,DE10LITE 开发板默认提供的时钟频率为 50MHz,则一个周期为 20ns,因此 T 延时可以取 10,000clk。延时后我们执行 precharge 命令。之后执行 tRP = 15ns Min,我们的 tRP 延迟就可以取 1clk(至少满足 15ns 的最低要求),然后执行 auto refresh 命令,tRC = 60ns Min 则延迟可取为 4clk,然后再次执行 auto refresh 命令,在这期间一共 9 个 clk。具体的设计可以首先设计一个 200us 的不自清零的计数器;设计一个对应的 200us 计数器标志位;针对 tRP 和 tRC 设计一个计数器,分别实现监测计数到对应的周期发出对应的命令;命令寄存器用来存放对应的命令;最后完成初始化操作后给一个初始化完成的标志位信号。

下面是具体实现的描述语言:

sdram_init.v
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/*
File name: sdram_init
Function: Power on initialization for IS42S16320D-7TL SDRAM
Module name: sdram_init
Author: Ricky
Time: 20181119
*/

module sdram_init(
//system signals
input sys_clk ,
input sys_rst_n ,

//others
output reg [3:0] cmd_reg ,
output wire [12:0] sdram_addr ,
output wire init_flag

);

/*==============================================================================
**********************Define Parameter and inside Signals***********************


Note: syssys_clk=50MHz
T|min=100us >>> 200us=200,000ns >>> 10,000sys_clk >>> [13:0] cnt_200us
tRP|min=15ns >>> 20ns >>> 1sys_clk >>> [4:0] cnt_cmd
tRC|min=60ns >>> 80ns >>> 4sys_clk >>> [4:0] cnt_cmd
===============================================================================*/
reg [13:0] cnt_200us ;
wire cnt_200us_flag ;
reg [4:0] cnt_cmd ;

//define sdram initial cmd
localparam precharge = 4'b0010;
localparam auto_refresh = 4'b0001;
localparam nop = 4'b0111;
localparam modeset = 4'b0000;

/*==============================================================================
**********************************Main Logic************************************
==============================================================================*/
//T=200us counter
always @(posedge sys_clk or negedge sys_rst_n) begin
if(~sys_rst_n)
cnt_200us <= 13'd0;
else
if(cnt_200us_flag == 1'b0)
cnt_200us <= cnt_200us + 1'b1;
else
cnt_200us <= cnt_200us;
end

//cmd counter
always @(posedge sys_clk or negedge sys_rst_n) begin
if(~sys_rst_n)
cnt_cmd <= 4'd0;
else
if (cnt_200us_flag == 1'b1 && init_flag == 1'b0)
cnt_cmd <= cnt_cmd + 1'b1;
end

//cmd
always @(posedge sys_clk or negedge sys_rst_n) begin
if(~sys_rst_n)
cmd_reg <= nop;
else
if(cnt_200us_flag == 1'b1)
case(cnt_cmd)
0: cmd_reg <= precharge ;
1: cmd_reg <= auto_refresh ;
5: cmd_reg <= auto_refresh ;
9: cmd_reg <= modeset ;
default: cmd_reg <= nop ;
endcase
end

assign cnt_200us_flag = (cnt_200us >= 10000) ? 1'b1:1'b0;
assign init_flag = (cnt_cmd >= 9) ? 1'b1:1'b0;
assign sdram_addr = (cmd_reg == modeset) ? 13'b0000000110010 : 13'b0010000000000;

endmodule

sdram_top.v
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 /*
File name: sdram_top
Author: Ricky
Time: 20181121
*/
module sdram(
//system signals
input sys_clk ,
input sys_rst_n ,
//sdram pin
output wire sdram_clk ,
output wire [12:0] sdram_addr ,
output wire [1:0] sdram_bank ,
output wire sdram_cas_n ,
output wire sdram_cke ,
output wire sdram_cs_n ,
output wire [1:0] sdram_dqm ,
output wire sdram_ras_n ,
output wire sdram_we_n ,

inout [15:0] sdram_dq
);

/*==============================================================================
**********************Define Parameter and inside Signals***********************
===============================================================================*/
wire init_flag ;
wire [3:0] init_cmd_reg ;
wire [12:0] init_addr ;

/*==============================================================================
**********************************Main Logic************************************
==============================================================================*/
assign sdram_addr = init_addr;
assign {sdram_cs_n, sdram_ras_n, sdram_cas_n, sdram_we_n} = init_cmd_reg;
assign sdram_clk = ~sys_clk;

assign sdram_dqm = 2'b00;
assign sdram_cke = 1'b1;

//instantiating sdram_init module
sdram_init sdram_init(
//system signals
. sys_clk (sys_clk) ,
. sys_rst_n (sys_rst_n) ,
//others
. cmd_reg (init_cmd_reg) ,
. sdram_addr (init_addr) ,
. init_flag (init_flag)

);

endmodule

sdram_tb.v
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/*
File name: sdram_tb
Function: Testbench for power on initialization for IS42S16320D-7TL SDRAM
Author: Ricky
Time: 20181123
*/
`timescale 1ns/1ns
module sdram_tb;

reg sys_clk;
reg sys_rst_n;
wire sdram_clk ;
wire [12:0] sdram_addr ;
wire [1:0] sdram_bank ;
wire sdram_cas_n ;
wire sdram_cke ;
wire sdram_cs_n ;
wire [1:0] sdram_dqm ;
wire sdram_ras_n ;
wire sdram_we_n ;

wire [15:0] sdram_dq ;

initial begin
sys_clk = 1;
sys_rst_n <= 0;
#100
sys_rst_n <= 1;
end

// 20ns/clock
always #10 sys_clk = ~sys_clk;

/* defparam sdram_model_plus.addr_bits = 13 ;
defparam sdram_model_plus.data_bits = 16 ;
defparam sdram_model_plus.col_bits = 9 ;
defparam sdram_model_plus.mem_sizes = 2*1024*1024 ; */

//instantiating sdram_init module
sdram sdraminit(
//system signals
.sys_clk (sys_clk ) ,
.sys_rst_n (sys_rst_n) ,
//sdram pin
.sdram_clk (sdram_clk) ,
.sdram_addr (sdram_addr) ,
.sdram_bank (sdram_bank) ,
.sdram_cas_n (sdram_cas_n) ,
.sdram_cke (sdram_cke) ,
.sdram_cs_n (sdram_cs_n) ,
.sdram_dqm (sdram_dqm) ,
.sdram_ras_n (sdram_ras_n) ,
.sdram_we_n (sdram_we_n) ,

.sdram_dq (sdram_dq)
);

//instantiating sdram_model module
sdram_model_plus sdram(
.Dq (sdram_dq) ,
.Addr (sdram_addr) ,
.Ba (sdram_bank) ,
.Clk (sdram_clk) ,
.Cke (sdram_cke) ,
.Cs_n (sdram_cs_n) ,
.Ras_n (sdram_ras_n) ,
.Cas_n (sdram_cas_n) ,
.We_n (sdram_we_n) ,
.Dqm (sdram_dqm) ,
.Debug (1'b1)
);

endmodule

仿真模型(见附件)一共有两个分别是镁光官方仿真模型以及国内大神基于镁光模型进行修改后便于调试的版本,使用任意一版均可。这里我采用的是 sdram_model.v

sdram_model.v
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/***************************************************************************************
作者: 李晟
2003-08-27 V0.1 李晟

添加内存模块倒空功能,在外部需要创建事件:sdram_r ,本SDRAM的内容将会按Bank 顺序damp out 至文件
sdram_data.txt 中
×××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××××*/
//2004-03-04 陈乃奎 修改原程序中将BANK的数据转存入TXT文件的格式
//2004-03-16 陈乃奎 修改SDRAM 的初始化数据
//2004/04/06 陈乃奎 将SDRAM的操作命令以字符形式表示,以便用MODELSIM监视
//2004/04/19 陈乃奎 修改参数 parameter tAC = 8;
//2010/09/17 罗瑶 修改sdram的大小,数据位宽,dqm宽度;
/****************************************************************************************
*
* File Name: sdram_model.V
* Version: 0.0f
* Date: July 8th, 1999
* Model: BUS Functional
* Simulator: Model Technology (PC version 5.2e PE)
*
* Dependencies: None
*
* Author: Son P. Huynh
* Email: [email protected]
* Phone: (208) 368-3825
* Company: Micron Technology, Inc.
* Model: sdram_model (1Meg x 16 x 4 Banks)
*
* Description: 64Mb SDRAM Verilog model
*
* Limitation: - Doesn't check for 4096 cycle refresh
*
* Note: - Set simulator resolution to "ps" accuracy
* - Set Debug = 0 to disable $display messages
*
* Disclaimer: THESE DESIGNS ARE PROVIDED "AS IS" WITH NO WARRANTY
* WHATSOEVER AND MICRON SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY
* IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR
* A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR AGAINST INFRINGEMENT.
*
* Copyright ?1998 Micron Semiconductor Products, Inc.
* All rights researved
*
* Rev Author Phone Date Changes
* ---- ---------------------------- ---------- ---------------------------------------
* 0.0f Son Huynh 208-368-3825 07/08/1999 - Fix tWR = 1 Clk + 7.5 ns (Auto)
* Micron Technology Inc. - Fix tWR = 15 ns (Manual)
* - Fix tRP (Autoprecharge to AutoRefresh)
*
* 0.0a Son Huynh 208-368-3825 05/13/1998 - First Release (from 64Mb rev 0.0e)
* Micron Technology Inc.
****************************************************************************************/

`timescale 1ns / 100ps

module sdram_model_plus (Dq, Addr, Ba, Clk, Cke, Cs_n, Ras_n, Cas_n, We_n, Dqm,Debug);

parameter addr_bits = 13;
parameter data_bits = 16;
parameter col_bits = 9;
parameter mem_sizes = 4*1024*1024 -1;//1 Meg

inout [data_bits - 1 : 0] Dq;
input [addr_bits - 1 : 0] Addr;
input [1 : 0] Ba;
input Clk;
input Cke;
input Cs_n;
input Ras_n;
input Cas_n;
input We_n;
input [1 : 0] Dqm; //高低各8bit
//added by xzli
input Debug;

reg [data_bits - 1 : 0] Bank0 [0 : mem_sizes];//存储器类型数据
reg [data_bits - 1 : 0] Bank1 [0 : mem_sizes];
reg [data_bits - 1 : 0] Bank2 [0 : mem_sizes];
reg [data_bits - 1 : 0] Bank3 [0 : mem_sizes];

reg [1 : 0] Bank_addr [0 : 3]; // Bank Address Pipeline
reg [col_bits - 1 : 0] Col_addr [0 : 3]; // Column Address Pipeline
reg [3 : 0] Command [0 : 3]; // Command Operation Pipeline
reg [3 : 0] Dqm_reg0, Dqm_reg1; // DQM Operation Pipeline
reg [addr_bits - 1 : 0] B0_row_addr, B1_row_addr, B2_row_addr, B3_row_addr;

reg [addr_bits - 1 : 0] Mode_reg;
reg [data_bits - 1 : 0] Dq_reg, Dq_dqm;
reg [col_bits - 1 : 0] Col_temp, Burst_counter;

reg Act_b0, Act_b1, Act_b2, Act_b3; // Bank Activate
reg Pc_b0, Pc_b1, Pc_b2, Pc_b3; // Bank Precharge

reg [1 : 0] Bank_precharge [0 : 3]; // Precharge Command
reg A10_precharge [0 : 3]; // Addr[10] = 1 (All banks)
reg Auto_precharge [0 : 3]; // RW AutoPrecharge (Bank)
reg Read_precharge [0 : 3]; // R AutoPrecharge
reg Write_precharge [0 : 3]; // W AutoPrecharge
integer Count_precharge [0 : 3]; // RW AutoPrecharge (Counter)
reg RW_interrupt_read [0 : 3]; // RW Interrupt Read with Auto Precharge
reg RW_interrupt_write [0 : 3]; // RW Interrupt Write with Auto Precharge

reg Data_in_enable;
reg Data_out_enable;

reg [1 : 0] Bank, Previous_bank;
reg [addr_bits - 1 : 0] Row;
reg [col_bits - 1 : 0] Col, Col_brst;

// Internal system clock
reg CkeZ, Sys_clk;

reg [24:0] dd;

// Commands Decode
wire Active_enable = ~Cs_n & ~Ras_n & Cas_n & We_n;
wire Aref_enable = ~Cs_n & ~Ras_n & ~Cas_n & We_n;
wire Burst_term = ~Cs_n & Ras_n & Cas_n & ~We_n;
wire Mode_reg_enable = ~Cs_n & ~Ras_n & ~Cas_n & ~We_n;
wire Prech_enable = ~Cs_n & ~Ras_n & Cas_n & ~We_n;
wire Read_enable = ~Cs_n & Ras_n & ~Cas_n & We_n;
wire Write_enable = ~Cs_n & Ras_n & ~Cas_n & ~We_n;

// Burst Length Decode
wire Burst_length_1 = ~Mode_reg[2] & ~Mode_reg[1] & ~Mode_reg[0];
wire Burst_length_2 = ~Mode_reg[2] & ~Mode_reg[1] & Mode_reg[0];
wire Burst_length_4 = ~Mode_reg[2] & Mode_reg[1] & ~Mode_reg[0];
wire Burst_length_8 = ~Mode_reg[2] & Mode_reg[1] & Mode_reg[0];

// CAS Latency Decode
wire Cas_latency_2 = ~Mode_reg[6] & Mode_reg[5] & ~Mode_reg[4];
wire Cas_latency_3 = ~Mode_reg[6] & Mode_reg[5] & Mode_reg[4];

// Write Burst Mode
wire Write_burst_mode = Mode_reg[9];

wire Debug; // Debug messages : 1 = On; 0 = Off
wire Dq_chk = Sys_clk & Data_in_enable; // Check setup/hold time for DQ

reg [31:0] mem_d;

event sdram_r,sdram_w,compare;




assign Dq = Dq_reg; // DQ buffer

// Commands Operation
`define ACT 0
`define NOP 1
`define READ 2
`define READ_A 3
`define WRITE 4
`define WRITE_A 5
`define PRECH 6
`define A_REF 7
`define BST 8
`define LMR 9

// // Timing Parameters for -75 (PC133) and CAS Latency = 2
// parameter tAC = 8; //test 6.5
// parameter tHZ = 7.0;
// parameter tOH = 2.7;
// parameter tMRD = 2.0; // 2 Clk Cycles
// parameter tRAS = 44.0;
// parameter tRC = 66.0;
// parameter tRCD = 20.0;
// parameter tRP = 20.0;
// parameter tRRD = 15.0;
// parameter tWRa = 7.5; // A2 Version - Auto precharge mode only (1 Clk + 7.5 ns)
// parameter tWRp = 0.0; // A2 Version - Precharge mode only (15 ns)

// Timing Parameters for -7 (PC143) and CAS Latency = 3
parameter tAC = 6.5; //test 6.5
parameter tHZ = 5.5;
parameter tOH = 2;
parameter tMRD = 2.0; // 2 Clk Cycles
parameter tRAS = 48.0;
parameter tRC = 70.0;
parameter tRCD = 20.0;
parameter tRP = 20.0;
parameter tRRD = 14.0;
parameter tWRa = 7.5; // A2 Version - Auto precharge mode only (1 Clk + 7.5 ns)
parameter tWRp = 0.0; // A2 Version - Precharge mode only (15 ns)

// Timing Check variable
integer MRD_chk;
integer WR_counter [0 : 3];
time WR_chk [0 : 3];
time RC_chk, RRD_chk;
time RAS_chk0, RAS_chk1, RAS_chk2, RAS_chk3;
time RCD_chk0, RCD_chk1, RCD_chk2, RCD_chk3;
time RP_chk0, RP_chk1, RP_chk2, RP_chk3;

integer test_file;

//*****display the command of the sdram**************************************

parameter Mode_Reg_Set =4'b0000;
parameter Auto_Refresh =4'b0001;
parameter Row_Active =4'b0011;
parameter Pre_Charge =4'b0010;
parameter PreCharge_All =4'b0010;
parameter Write =4'b0100;
parameter Write_Pre =4'b0100;
parameter Read =4'b0101;
parameter Read_Pre =4'b0101;
parameter Burst_Stop =4'b0110;
parameter Nop =4'b0111;
parameter Dsel =4'b1111;

wire [3:0] sdram_control;
reg cke_temp;
reg [8*13:1] sdram_command;

always@(posedge Clk)
cke_temp<=Cke;

assign sdram_control={Cs_n,Ras_n,Cas_n,We_n};

always@(sdram_control or cke_temp)
begin
case(sdram_control)
Mode_Reg_Set: sdram_command<="Mode_Reg_Set";
Auto_Refresh: sdram_command<="Auto_Refresh";
Row_Active: sdram_command<="Row_Active";
Pre_Charge: sdram_command<="Pre_Charge";
Burst_Stop: sdram_command<="Burst_Stop";
Dsel: sdram_command<="Dsel";

Write: if(cke_temp==1)
sdram_command<="Write";
else
sdram_command<="Write_suspend";

Read: if(cke_temp==1)
sdram_command<="Read";
else
sdram_command<="Read_suspend";

Nop: if(cke_temp==1)
sdram_command<="Nop";
else
sdram_command<="Self_refresh";

default: sdram_command<="Power_down";
endcase
end

//*****************************************************

initial
begin
//test_file=$fopen("test_file.txt");
end

initial
begin
Dq_reg = {data_bits{1'bz}};
{Data_in_enable, Data_out_enable} = 0;
{Act_b0, Act_b1, Act_b2, Act_b3} = 4'b0000;
{Pc_b0, Pc_b1, Pc_b2, Pc_b3} = 4'b0000;
{WR_chk[0], WR_chk[1], WR_chk[2], WR_chk[3]} = 0;
{WR_counter[0], WR_counter[1], WR_counter[2], WR_counter[3]} = 0;
{RW_interrupt_read[0], RW_interrupt_read[1], RW_interrupt_read[2], RW_interrupt_read[3]} = 0;
{RW_interrupt_write[0], RW_interrupt_write[1], RW_interrupt_write[2], RW_interrupt_write[3]} = 0;
{MRD_chk, RC_chk, RRD_chk} = 0;
{RAS_chk0, RAS_chk1, RAS_chk2, RAS_chk3} = 0;
{RCD_chk0, RCD_chk1, RCD_chk2, RCD_chk3} = 0;
{RP_chk0, RP_chk1, RP_chk2, RP_chk3} = 0;
$timeformat (-9, 0, " ns", 12);
//$readmemh("bank0.txt", Bank0);
//$readmemh("bank1.txt", Bank1);
//$readmemh("bank2.txt", Bank2);
//$readmemh("bank3.txt", Bank3);
/*
for(dd=0;dd<=mem_sizes;dd=dd+1)
begin
Bank0[dd]=dd[data_bits - 1 : 0];
Bank1[dd]=dd[data_bits - 1 : 0]+1;
Bank2[dd]=dd[data_bits - 1 : 0]+2;
Bank3[dd]=dd[data_bits - 1 : 0]+3;
end
*/
initial_sdram(0);
end

task initial_sdram;

input data_sign;
reg [3:0] data_sign;

for(dd=0;dd<=mem_sizes;dd=dd+1)
begin
mem_d = {data_sign,data_sign,data_sign,data_sign,data_sign,data_sign,data_sign,data_sign};
if(data_bits==16)
begin
Bank0[dd]=mem_d[15:0];
Bank1[dd]=mem_d[15:0];
Bank2[dd]=mem_d[15:0];
Bank3[dd]=mem_d[15:0];
end
else if(data_bits==32)
begin
Bank0[dd]=mem_d[31:0];
Bank1[dd]=mem_d[31:0];
Bank2[dd]=mem_d[31:0];
Bank3[dd]=mem_d[31:0];
end
end

endtask

// System clock generator
always
begin
@(posedge Clk)
begin
Sys_clk = CkeZ;
CkeZ = Cke;
end
@(negedge Clk)
begin
Sys_clk = 1'b0;
end
end

always @ (posedge Sys_clk) begin
// Internal Commamd Pipelined
Command[0] = Command[1];
Command[1] = Command[2];
Command[2] = Command[3];
Command[3] = `NOP;

Col_addr[0] = Col_addr[1];
Col_addr[1] = Col_addr[2];
Col_addr[2] = Col_addr[3];
Col_addr[3] = {col_bits{1'b0}};

Bank_addr[0] = Bank_addr[1];
Bank_addr[1] = Bank_addr[2];
Bank_addr[2] = Bank_addr[3];
Bank_addr[3] = 2'b0;

Bank_precharge[0] = Bank_precharge[1];
Bank_precharge[1] = Bank_precharge[2];
Bank_precharge[2] = Bank_precharge[3];
Bank_precharge[3] = 2'b0;

A10_precharge[0] = A10_precharge[1];
A10_precharge[1] = A10_precharge[2];
A10_precharge[2] = A10_precharge[3];
A10_precharge[3] = 1'b0;

// Dqm pipeline for Read
Dqm_reg0 = Dqm_reg1;
Dqm_reg1 = Dqm;

// Read or Write with Auto Precharge Counter
if (Auto_precharge[0] == 1'b1) begin
Count_precharge[0] = Count_precharge[0] + 1;
end
if (Auto_precharge[1] == 1'b1) begin
Count_precharge[1] = Count_precharge[1] + 1;
end
if (Auto_precharge[2] == 1'b1) begin
Count_precharge[2] = Count_precharge[2] + 1;
end
if (Auto_precharge[3] == 1'b1) begin
Count_precharge[3] = Count_precharge[3] + 1;
end

// tMRD Counter
MRD_chk = MRD_chk + 1;

// tWR Counter for Write
WR_counter[0] = WR_counter[0] + 1;
WR_counter[1] = WR_counter[1] + 1;
WR_counter[2] = WR_counter[2] + 1;
WR_counter[3] = WR_counter[3] + 1;

// Auto Refresh
if (Aref_enable == 1'b1) begin
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t AREF : Auto Refresh", $time);
// Auto Refresh to Auto Refresh
if (($time - RC_chk < tRC)&&Debug) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tRC violation during Auto Refresh", $time);
end
// Precharge to Auto Refresh
if (($time - RP_chk0 < tRP || $time - RP_chk1 < tRP || $time - RP_chk2 < tRP || $time - RP_chk3 < tRP)&&Debug) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tRP violation during Auto Refresh", $time);
end
// Precharge to Refresh
if (Pc_b0 == 1'b0 || Pc_b1 == 1'b0 || Pc_b2 == 1'b0 || Pc_b3 == 1'b0) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: All banks must be Precharge before Auto Refresh", $time);
end
// Record Current tRC time
RC_chk = $time;
end

// Load Mode Register
if (Mode_reg_enable == 1'b1) begin
// Decode CAS Latency, Burst Length, Burst Type, and Write Burst Mode
if (Pc_b0 == 1'b1 && Pc_b1 == 1'b1 && Pc_b2 == 1'b1 && Pc_b3 == 1'b1) begin
Mode_reg = Addr;
if (Debug) begin
$display ("at time %t LMR : Load Mode Register", $time);
// CAS Latency
if (Addr[6 : 4] == 3'b010)
$display (" CAS Latency = 2");
else if (Addr[6 : 4] == 3'b011)
$display (" CAS Latency = 3");
else
$display (" CAS Latency = Reserved");
// Burst Length
if (Addr[2 : 0] == 3'b000)
$display (" Burst Length = 1");
else if (Addr[2 : 0] == 3'b001)
$display (" Burst Length = 2");
else if (Addr[2 : 0] == 3'b010)
$display (" Burst Length = 4");
else if (Addr[2 : 0] == 3'b011)
$display (" Burst Length = 8");
else if (Addr[3 : 0] == 4'b0111)
$display (" Burst Length = Full");
else
$display (" Burst Length = Reserved");
// Burst Type
if (Addr[3] == 1'b0)
$display (" Burst Type = Sequential");
else if (Addr[3] == 1'b1)
$display (" Burst Type = Interleaved");
else
$display (" Burst Type = Reserved");
// Write Burst Mode
if (Addr[9] == 1'b0)
$display (" Write Burst Mode = Programmed Burst Length");
else if (Addr[9] == 1'b1)
$display (" Write Burst Mode = Single Location Access");
else
$display (" Write Burst Mode = Reserved");
end
end else begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: all banks must be Precharge before Load Mode Register", $time);
end
// REF to LMR
if ($time - RC_chk < tRC) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tRC violation during Load Mode Register", $time);
end
// LMR to LMR
if (MRD_chk < tMRD) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tMRD violation during Load Mode Register", $time);
end
MRD_chk = 0;
end

// Active Block (Latch Bank Address and Row Address)
if (Active_enable == 1'b1) begin
if (Ba == 2'b00 && Pc_b0 == 1'b1) begin
{Act_b0, Pc_b0} = 2'b10;
B0_row_addr = Addr [addr_bits - 1 : 0];
RCD_chk0 = $time;
RAS_chk0 = $time;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t ACT : Bank = 0 Row = %d", $time, Addr);
// Precharge to Activate Bank 0
if ($time - RP_chk0 < tRP) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tRP violation during Activate bank 0", $time);
end
end else if (Ba == 2'b01 && Pc_b1 == 1'b1) begin
{Act_b1, Pc_b1} = 2'b10;
B1_row_addr = Addr [addr_bits - 1 : 0];
RCD_chk1 = $time;
RAS_chk1 = $time;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t ACT : Bank = 1 Row = %d", $time, Addr);
// Precharge to Activate Bank 1
if ($time - RP_chk1 < tRP) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tRP violation during Activate bank 1", $time);
end
end else if (Ba == 2'b10 && Pc_b2 == 1'b1) begin
{Act_b2, Pc_b2} = 2'b10;
B2_row_addr = Addr [addr_bits - 1 : 0];
RCD_chk2 = $time;
RAS_chk2 = $time;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t ACT : Bank = 2 Row = %d", $time, Addr);
// Precharge to Activate Bank 2
if ($time - RP_chk2 < tRP) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tRP violation during Activate bank 2", $time);
end
end else if (Ba == 2'b11 && Pc_b3 == 1'b1) begin
{Act_b3, Pc_b3} = 2'b10;
B3_row_addr = Addr [addr_bits - 1 : 0];
RCD_chk3 = $time;
RAS_chk3 = $time;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t ACT : Bank = 3 Row = %d", $time, Addr);
// Precharge to Activate Bank 3
if ($time - RP_chk3 < tRP) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tRP violation during Activate bank 3", $time);
end
end else if (Ba == 2'b00 && Pc_b0 == 1'b0) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: Bank 0 is not Precharged.", $time);
end else if (Ba == 2'b01 && Pc_b1 == 1'b0) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: Bank 1 is not Precharged.", $time);
end else if (Ba == 2'b10 && Pc_b2 == 1'b0) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: Bank 2 is not Precharged.", $time);
end else if (Ba == 2'b11 && Pc_b3 == 1'b0) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: Bank 3 is not Precharged.", $time);
end
// Active Bank A to Active Bank B
if ((Previous_bank != Ba) && ($time - RRD_chk < tRRD)) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tRRD violation during Activate bank = %d", $time, Ba);
end
// Load Mode Register to Active
if (MRD_chk < tMRD ) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tMRD violation during Activate bank = %d", $time, Ba);
end
// Auto Refresh to Activate
if (($time - RC_chk < tRC)&&Debug) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tRC violation during Activate bank = %d", $time, Ba);
end
// Record variables for checking violation
RRD_chk = $time;
Previous_bank = Ba;
end

// Precharge Block
if (Prech_enable == 1'b1) begin
if (Addr[10] == 1'b1) begin
{Pc_b0, Pc_b1, Pc_b2, Pc_b3} = 4'b1111;
{Act_b0, Act_b1, Act_b2, Act_b3} = 4'b0000;
RP_chk0 = $time;
RP_chk1 = $time;
RP_chk2 = $time;
RP_chk3 = $time;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t PRE : Bank = ALL",$time);
// Activate to Precharge all banks
if (($time - RAS_chk0 < tRAS) || ($time - RAS_chk1 < tRAS) ||
($time - RAS_chk2 < tRAS) || ($time - RAS_chk3 < tRAS)) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tRAS violation during Precharge all bank", $time);
end
// tWR violation check for write
if (($time - WR_chk[0] < tWRp) || ($time - WR_chk[1] < tWRp) ||
($time - WR_chk[2] < tWRp) || ($time - WR_chk[3] < tWRp)) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tWR violation during Precharge all bank", $time);
end
end else if (Addr[10] == 1'b0) begin
if (Ba == 2'b00) begin
{Pc_b0, Act_b0} = 2'b10;
RP_chk0 = $time;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t PRE : Bank = 0",$time);
// Activate to Precharge Bank 0
if ($time - RAS_chk0 < tRAS) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tRAS violation during Precharge bank 0", $time);
end
end else if (Ba == 2'b01) begin
{Pc_b1, Act_b1} = 2'b10;
RP_chk1 = $time;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t PRE : Bank = 1",$time);
// Activate to Precharge Bank 1
if ($time - RAS_chk1 < tRAS) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tRAS violation during Precharge bank 1", $time);
end
end else if (Ba == 2'b10) begin
{Pc_b2, Act_b2} = 2'b10;
RP_chk2 = $time;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t PRE : Bank = 2",$time);
// Activate to Precharge Bank 2
if ($time - RAS_chk2 < tRAS) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tRAS violation during Precharge bank 2", $time);
end
end else if (Ba == 2'b11) begin
{Pc_b3, Act_b3} = 2'b10;
RP_chk3 = $time;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t PRE : Bank = 3",$time);
// Activate to Precharge Bank 3
if ($time - RAS_chk3 < tRAS) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tRAS violation during Precharge bank 3", $time);
end
end
// tWR violation check for write
if ($time - WR_chk[Ba] < tWRp) begin
$display ("at time %t ERROR: tWR violation during Precharge bank %d", $time, Ba);
end
end
// Terminate a Write Immediately (if same bank or all banks)
if (Data_in_enable == 1'b1 && (Bank == Ba || Addr[10] == 1'b1)) begin
Data_in_enable = 1'b0;
end
// Precharge Command Pipeline for Read
if (Cas_latency_3 == 1'b1) begin
Command[2] = `PRECH;
Bank_precharge[2] = Ba;
A10_precharge[2] = Addr[10];
end else if (Cas_latency_2 == 1'b1) begin
Command[1] = `PRECH;
Bank_precharge[1] = Ba;
A10_precharge[1] = Addr[10];
end
end

// Burst terminate
if (Burst_term == 1'b1) begin
// Terminate a Write Immediately
if (Data_in_enable == 1'b1) begin
Data_in_enable = 1'b0;
end
// Terminate a Read Depend on CAS Latency
if (Cas_latency_3 == 1'b1) begin
Command[2] = `BST;
end else if (Cas_latency_2 == 1'b1) begin
Command[1] = `BST;
end
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t BST : Burst Terminate",$time);
end

// Read, Write, Column Latch
if (Read_enable == 1'b1 || Write_enable == 1'b1) begin
// Check to see if bank is open (ACT)
if ((Ba == 2'b00 && Pc_b0 == 1'b1) || (Ba == 2'b01 && Pc_b1 == 1'b1) ||
(Ba == 2'b10 && Pc_b2 == 1'b1) || (Ba == 2'b11 && Pc_b3 == 1'b1)) begin
$display("at time %t ERROR: Cannot Read or Write - Bank %d is not Activated", $time, Ba);
end
// Activate to Read or Write
if ((Ba == 2'b00) && ($time - RCD_chk0 < tRCD))
$display("at time %t ERROR: tRCD violation during Read or Write to Bank 0", $time);
if ((Ba == 2'b01) && ($time - RCD_chk1 < tRCD))
$display("at time %t ERROR: tRCD violation during Read or Write to Bank 1", $time);
if ((Ba == 2'b10) && ($time - RCD_chk2 < tRCD))
$display("at time %t ERROR: tRCD violation during Read or Write to Bank 2", $time);
if ((Ba == 2'b11) && ($time - RCD_chk3 < tRCD))
$display("at time %t ERROR: tRCD violation during Read or Write to Bank 3", $time);
// Read Command
if (Read_enable == 1'b1) begin
// CAS Latency pipeline
if (Cas_latency_3 == 1'b1) begin
if (Addr[10] == 1'b1) begin
Command[2] = `READ_A;
end else begin
Command[2] = `READ;
end
Col_addr[2] = Addr;
Bank_addr[2] = Ba;
end else if (Cas_latency_2 == 1'b1) begin
if (Addr[10] == 1'b1) begin
Command[1] = `READ_A;
end else begin
Command[1] = `READ;
end
Col_addr[1] = Addr;
Bank_addr[1] = Ba;
end

// Read interrupt Write (terminate Write immediately)
if (Data_in_enable == 1'b1) begin
Data_in_enable = 1'b0;
end

// Write Command
end else if (Write_enable == 1'b1) begin
if (Addr[10] == 1'b1) begin
Command[0] = `WRITE_A;
end else begin
Command[0] = `WRITE;
end
Col_addr[0] = Addr;
Bank_addr[0] = Ba;

// Write interrupt Write (terminate Write immediately)
if (Data_in_enable == 1'b1) begin
Data_in_enable = 1'b0;
end

// Write interrupt Read (terminate Read immediately)
if (Data_out_enable == 1'b1) begin
Data_out_enable = 1'b0;
end
end

// Interrupting a Write with Autoprecharge
if (Auto_precharge[Bank] == 1'b1 && Write_precharge[Bank] == 1'b1) begin
RW_interrupt_write[Bank] = 1'b1;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t NOTE : Read/Write Bank %d interrupt Write Bank %d with Autoprecharge", $time, Ba, Bank);
end

// Interrupting a Read with Autoprecharge
if (Auto_precharge[Bank] == 1'b1 && Read_precharge[Bank] == 1'b1) begin
RW_interrupt_read[Bank] = 1'b1;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t NOTE : Read/Write Bank %d interrupt Read Bank %d with Autoprecharge", $time, Ba, Bank);
end

// Read or Write with Auto Precharge
if (Addr[10] == 1'b1) begin
Auto_precharge[Ba] = 1'b1;
Count_precharge[Ba] = 0;
if (Read_enable == 1'b1) begin
Read_precharge[Ba] = 1'b1;
end else if (Write_enable == 1'b1) begin
Write_precharge[Ba] = 1'b1;
end
end
end

// Read with Auto Precharge Calculation
// The device start internal precharge:
// 1. CAS Latency - 1 cycles before last burst
// and 2. Meet minimum tRAS requirement
// or 3. Interrupt by a Read or Write (with or without AutoPrecharge)
if ((Auto_precharge[0] == 1'b1) && (Read_precharge[0] == 1'b1)) begin
if ((($time - RAS_chk0 >= tRAS) && // Case 2
((Burst_length_1 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[0] >= 1) || // Case 1
(Burst_length_2 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[0] >= 2) ||
(Burst_length_4 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[0] >= 4) ||
(Burst_length_8 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[0] >= 8))) ||
(RW_interrupt_read[0] == 1'b1)) begin // Case 3
Pc_b0 = 1'b1;
Act_b0 = 1'b0;
RP_chk0 = $time;
Auto_precharge[0] = 1'b0;
Read_precharge[0] = 1'b0;
RW_interrupt_read[0] = 1'b0;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t NOTE : Start Internal Auto Precharge for Bank 0", $time);
end
end
if ((Auto_precharge[1] == 1'b1) && (Read_precharge[1] == 1'b1)) begin
if ((($time - RAS_chk1 >= tRAS) &&
((Burst_length_1 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[1] >= 1) ||
(Burst_length_2 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[1] >= 2) ||
(Burst_length_4 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[1] >= 4) ||
(Burst_length_8 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[1] >= 8))) ||
(RW_interrupt_read[1] == 1'b1)) begin
Pc_b1 = 1'b1;
Act_b1 = 1'b0;
RP_chk1 = $time;
Auto_precharge[1] = 1'b0;
Read_precharge[1] = 1'b0;
RW_interrupt_read[1] = 1'b0;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t NOTE : Start Internal Auto Precharge for Bank 1", $time);
end
end
if ((Auto_precharge[2] == 1'b1) && (Read_precharge[2] == 1'b1)) begin
if ((($time - RAS_chk2 >= tRAS) &&
((Burst_length_1 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[2] >= 1) ||
(Burst_length_2 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[2] >= 2) ||
(Burst_length_4 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[2] >= 4) ||
(Burst_length_8 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[2] >= 8))) ||
(RW_interrupt_read[2] == 1'b1)) begin
Pc_b2 = 1'b1;
Act_b2 = 1'b0;
RP_chk2 = $time;
Auto_precharge[2] = 1'b0;
Read_precharge[2] = 1'b0;
RW_interrupt_read[2] = 1'b0;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t NOTE : Start Internal Auto Precharge for Bank 2", $time);
end
end
if ((Auto_precharge[3] == 1'b1) && (Read_precharge[3] == 1'b1)) begin
if ((($time - RAS_chk3 >= tRAS) &&
((Burst_length_1 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[3] >= 1) ||
(Burst_length_2 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[3] >= 2) ||
(Burst_length_4 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[3] >= 4) ||
(Burst_length_8 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge[3] >= 8))) ||
(RW_interrupt_read[3] == 1'b1)) begin
Pc_b3 = 1'b1;
Act_b3 = 1'b0;
RP_chk3 = $time;
Auto_precharge[3] = 1'b0;
Read_precharge[3] = 1'b0;
RW_interrupt_read[3] = 1'b0;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t NOTE : Start Internal Auto Precharge for Bank 3", $time);
end
end

// Internal Precharge or Bst
if (Command[0] == `PRECH) begin // Precharge terminate a read with same bank or all banks
if (Bank_precharge[0] == Bank || A10_precharge[0] == 1'b1) begin
if (Data_out_enable == 1'b1) begin
Data_out_enable = 1'b0;
end
end
end else if (Command[0] == `BST) begin // BST terminate a read to current bank
if (Data_out_enable == 1'b1) begin
Data_out_enable = 1'b0;
end
end

if (Data_out_enable == 1'b0) begin
Dq_reg <= #tOH {data_bits{1'bz}};
end

// Detect Read or Write command
if (Command[0] == `READ || Command[0] == `READ_A) begin
Bank = Bank_addr[0];
Col = Col_addr[0];
Col_brst = Col_addr[0];
if (Bank_addr[0] == 2'b00) begin
Row = B0_row_addr;
end else if (Bank_addr[0] == 2'b01) begin
Row = B1_row_addr;
end else if (Bank_addr[0] == 2'b10) begin
Row = B2_row_addr;
end else if (Bank_addr[0] == 2'b11) begin
Row = B3_row_addr;
end
Burst_counter = 0;
Data_in_enable = 1'b0;
Data_out_enable = 1'b1;
end else if (Command[0] == `WRITE || Command[0] == `WRITE_A) begin
Bank = Bank_addr[0];
Col = Col_addr[0];
Col_brst = Col_addr[0];
if (Bank_addr[0] == 2'b00) begin
Row = B0_row_addr;
end else if (Bank_addr[0] == 2'b01) begin
Row = B1_row_addr;
end else if (Bank_addr[0] == 2'b10) begin
Row = B2_row_addr;
end else if (Bank_addr[0] == 2'b11) begin
Row = B3_row_addr;
end
Burst_counter = 0;
Data_in_enable = 1'b1;
Data_out_enable = 1'b0;
end

// DQ buffer (Driver/Receiver)
if (Data_in_enable == 1'b1) begin // Writing Data to Memory
// Array buffer
if (Bank == 2'b00) Dq_dqm [data_bits - 1 : 0] = Bank0 [{Row, Col}];
if (Bank == 2'b01) Dq_dqm [data_bits - 1 : 0] = Bank1 [{Row, Col}];
if (Bank == 2'b10) Dq_dqm [data_bits - 1 : 0] = Bank2 [{Row, Col}];
if (Bank == 2'b11) Dq_dqm [data_bits - 1 : 0] = Bank3 [{Row, Col}];
// Dqm operation
if (Dqm[0] == 1'b0) Dq_dqm [ 7 : 0] = Dq [ 7 : 0];
if (Dqm[1] == 1'b0) Dq_dqm [15 : 8] = Dq [15 : 8];
//if (Dqm[2] == 1'b0) Dq_dqm [23 : 16] = Dq [23 : 16];
// if (Dqm[3] == 1'b0) Dq_dqm [31 : 24] = Dq [31 : 24];
// Write to memory
if (Bank == 2'b00) Bank0 [{Row, Col}] = Dq_dqm [data_bits - 1 : 0];
if (Bank == 2'b01) Bank1 [{Row, Col}] = Dq_dqm [data_bits - 1 : 0];
if (Bank == 2'b10) Bank2 [{Row, Col}] = Dq_dqm [data_bits - 1 : 0];
if (Bank == 2'b11) Bank3 [{Row, Col}] = Dq_dqm [data_bits - 1 : 0];
if (Bank == 2'b11 && Row==10'h3 && Col[7:4]==4'h4)
$display("at time %t WRITE: Bank = %d Row = %d, Col = %d, Data = Hi-Z due to DQM", $time, Bank, Row, Col);
//$fdisplay(test_file,"bank:%h row:%h col:%h write:%h",Bank,Row,Col,Dq_dqm);
// Output result
if (Dqm == 4'b1111) begin
if (Debug) $display("at time %t WRITE: Bank = %d Row = %d, Col = %d, Data = Hi-Z due to DQM", $time, Bank, Row, Col);
end else begin
if (Debug) $display("at time %t WRITE: Bank = %d Row = %d, Col = %d, Data = %d, Dqm = %b", $time, Bank, Row, Col, Dq_dqm, Dqm);
// Record tWR time and reset counter
WR_chk [Bank] = $time;
WR_counter [Bank] = 0;
end
// Advance burst counter subroutine
#tHZ Burst;
end else if (Data_out_enable == 1'b1) begin // Reading Data from Memory
//$display("%h , %h, %h",Bank0,Row,Col);
// Array buffer
if (Bank == 2'b00) Dq_dqm [data_bits - 1 : 0] = Bank0 [{Row, Col}];
if (Bank == 2'b01) Dq_dqm [data_bits - 1 : 0] = Bank1 [{Row, Col}];
if (Bank == 2'b10) Dq_dqm [data_bits - 1 : 0] = Bank2 [{Row, Col}];
if (Bank == 2'b11) Dq_dqm [data_bits - 1 : 0] = Bank3 [{Row, Col}];

// Dqm operation
if (Dqm_reg0[0] == 1'b1) Dq_dqm [ 7 : 0] = 8'bz;
if (Dqm_reg0[1] == 1'b1) Dq_dqm [15 : 8] = 8'bz;
if (Dqm_reg0[2] == 1'b1) Dq_dqm [23 : 16] = 8'bz;
if (Dqm_reg0[3] == 1'b1) Dq_dqm [31 : 24] = 8'bz;
// Display result
Dq_reg [data_bits - 1 : 0] = #tAC Dq_dqm [data_bits - 1 : 0];
if (Dqm_reg0 == 4'b1111) begin
if (Debug) $display("at time %t READ : Bank = %d Row = %d, Col = %d, Data = Hi-Z due to DQM", $time, Bank, Row, Col);
end else begin
if (Debug) $display("at time %t READ : Bank = %d Row = %d, Col = %d, Data = %d, Dqm = %b", $time, Bank, Row, Col, Dq_reg, Dqm_reg0);
end
// Advance burst counter subroutine
Burst;
end
end

// Write with Auto Precharge Calculation
// The device start internal precharge:
// 1. tWR Clock after last burst
// and 2. Meet minimum tRAS requirement
// or 3. Interrupt by a Read or Write (with or without AutoPrecharge)
always @ (WR_counter[0]) begin
if ((Auto_precharge[0] == 1'b1) && (Write_precharge[0] == 1'b1)) begin
if ((($time - RAS_chk0 >= tRAS) && // Case 2
(((Burst_length_1 == 1'b1 || Write_burst_mode == 1'b1) && Count_precharge [0] >= 1) || // Case 1
(Burst_length_2 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge [0] >= 2) ||
(Burst_length_4 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge [0] >= 4) ||
(Burst_length_8 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge [0] >= 8))) ||
(RW_interrupt_write[0] == 1'b1 && WR_counter[0] >= 2)) begin // Case 3 (stop count when interrupt)
Auto_precharge[0] = 1'b0;
Write_precharge[0] = 1'b0;
RW_interrupt_write[0] = 1'b0;
#tWRa; // Wait for tWR
Pc_b0 = 1'b1;
Act_b0 = 1'b0;
RP_chk0 = $time;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t NOTE : Start Internal Auto Precharge for Bank 0", $time);
end
end
end
always @ (WR_counter[1]) begin
if ((Auto_precharge[1] == 1'b1) && (Write_precharge[1] == 1'b1)) begin
if ((($time - RAS_chk1 >= tRAS) &&
(((Burst_length_1 == 1'b1 || Write_burst_mode == 1'b1) && Count_precharge [1] >= 1) ||
(Burst_length_2 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge [1] >= 2) ||
(Burst_length_4 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge [1] >= 4) ||
(Burst_length_8 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge [1] >= 8))) ||
(RW_interrupt_write[1] == 1'b1 && WR_counter[1] >= 2)) begin
Auto_precharge[1] = 1'b0;
Write_precharge[1] = 1'b0;
RW_interrupt_write[1] = 1'b0;
#tWRa; // Wait for tWR
Pc_b1 = 1'b1;
Act_b1 = 1'b0;
RP_chk1 = $time;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t NOTE : Start Internal Auto Precharge for Bank 1", $time);
end
end
end
always @ (WR_counter[2]) begin
if ((Auto_precharge[2] == 1'b1) && (Write_precharge[2] == 1'b1)) begin
if ((($time - RAS_chk2 >= tRAS) &&
(((Burst_length_1 == 1'b1 || Write_burst_mode == 1'b1) && Count_precharge [2] >= 1) ||
(Burst_length_2 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge [2] >= 2) ||
(Burst_length_4 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge [2] >= 4) ||
(Burst_length_8 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge [2] >= 8))) ||
(RW_interrupt_write[2] == 1'b1 && WR_counter[2] >= 2)) begin
Auto_precharge[2] = 1'b0;
Write_precharge[2] = 1'b0;
RW_interrupt_write[2] = 1'b0;
#tWRa; // Wait for tWR
Pc_b2 = 1'b1;
Act_b2 = 1'b0;
RP_chk2 = $time;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t NOTE : Start Internal Auto Precharge for Bank 2", $time);
end
end
end
always @ (WR_counter[3]) begin
if ((Auto_precharge[3] == 1'b1) && (Write_precharge[3] == 1'b1)) begin
if ((($time - RAS_chk3 >= tRAS) &&
(((Burst_length_1 == 1'b1 || Write_burst_mode == 1'b1) && Count_precharge [3] >= 1) ||
(Burst_length_2 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge [3] >= 2) ||
(Burst_length_4 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge [3] >= 4) ||
(Burst_length_8 == 1'b1 && Count_precharge [3] >= 8))) ||
(RW_interrupt_write[3] == 1'b1 && WR_counter[3] >= 2)) begin
Auto_precharge[3] = 1'b0;
Write_precharge[3] = 1'b0;
RW_interrupt_write[3] = 1'b0;
#tWRa; // Wait for tWR
Pc_b3 = 1'b1;
Act_b3 = 1'b0;
RP_chk3 = $time;
if (Debug) $display ("at time %t NOTE : Start Internal Auto Precharge for Bank 3", $time);
end
end
end

task Burst;
begin
// Advance Burst Counter
Burst_counter = Burst_counter + 1;

// Burst Type
if (Mode_reg[3] == 1'b0) begin // Sequential Burst
Col_temp = Col + 1;
end else if (Mode_reg[3] == 1'b1) begin // Interleaved Burst
Col_temp[2] = Burst_counter[2] ^ Col_brst[2];
Col_temp[1] = Burst_counter[1] ^ Col_brst[1];
Col_temp[0] = Burst_counter[0] ^ Col_brst[0];
end

// Burst Length
if (Burst_length_2) begin // Burst Length = 2
Col [0] = Col_temp [0];
end else if (Burst_length_4) begin // Burst Length = 4
Col [1 : 0] = Col_temp [1 : 0];
end else if (Burst_length_8) begin // Burst Length = 8
Col [2 : 0] = Col_temp [2 : 0];
end else begin // Burst Length = FULL
Col = Col_temp;
end

// Burst Read Single Write
if (Write_burst_mode == 1'b1) begin
Data_in_enable = 1'b0;
end

// Data Counter
if (Burst_length_1 == 1'b1) begin
if (Burst_counter >= 1) begin
Data_in_enable = 1'b0;
Data_out_enable = 1'b0;
end
end else if (Burst_length_2 == 1'b1) begin
if (Burst_counter >= 2) begin
Data_in_enable = 1'b0;
Data_out_enable = 1'b0;
end
end else if (Burst_length_4 == 1'b1) begin
if (Burst_counter >= 4) begin
Data_in_enable = 1'b0;
Data_out_enable = 1'b0;
end
end else if (Burst_length_8 == 1'b1) begin
if (Burst_counter >= 8) begin
Data_in_enable = 1'b0;
Data_out_enable = 1'b0;
end
end
end
endtask

//**********************将SDRAM内的数据直接输出到外部文件*******************************//

/*
integer sdram_data,ind;


[email protected](sdram_r)
begin
sdram_data=$fopen("sdram_data.txt");
$display("Sdram dampout begin ",sdram_data);
// $fdisplay(sdram_data,"Bank0:");
for(ind=0;ind<=mem_sizes;ind=ind+1)
$fdisplay(sdram_data,"%h %b",ind,Bank0[ind]);
// $fdisplay(sdram_data,"Bank1:");
for(ind=0;ind<=mem_sizes;ind=ind+1)
$fdisplay(sdram_data,"%h %b",ind,Bank1[ind]);
// $fdisplay(sdram_data,"Bank2:");
for(ind=0;ind<=mem_sizes;ind=ind+1)
$fdisplay(sdram_data,"%h %b",ind,Bank2[ind]);
// $fdisplay(sdram_data,"Bank3:");
for(ind=0;ind<=mem_sizes;ind=ind+1)
$fdisplay(sdram_data,"%h %b",ind,Bank3[ind]);

$fclose("sdram_data.txt");
//->compare;
end
*/
integer sdram_data,sdram_mem;
reg [24:0] aa,cc;
reg [24:0] bb,ee;

always@(sdram_r)
begin
$display("Sdram dampout begin ",$realtime);
sdram_data=$fopen("sdram_data.txt");
for(aa=0;aa<4*(mem_sizes+1);aa=aa+1)
begin
bb=aa[18:0];
if(aa<=mem_sizes)
$fdisplay(sdram_data,"%0d %0h",aa,Bank0[bb]);
else if(aa<=2*mem_sizes+1)
$fdisplay(sdram_data,"%0d %0h",aa,Bank1[bb]);
else if(aa<=3*mem_sizes+2)
$fdisplay(sdram_data,"%0d %0h",aa,Bank2[bb]);
else
$fdisplay(sdram_data,"%0d %0h",aa,Bank3[bb]);
end
$fclose("sdram_data.txt");

sdram_mem=$fopen("sdram_mem.txt");
for(cc=0;cc<4*(mem_sizes+1);cc=cc+1)
begin
ee=cc[18:0];
if(cc<=mem_sizes)
$fdisplay(sdram_mem,"%0h",Bank0[ee]);
else if(cc<=2*mem_sizes+1)
$fdisplay(sdram_mem,"%0h",Bank1[ee]);
else if(cc<=3*mem_sizes+2)
$fdisplay(sdram_mem,"%0h",Bank2[ee]);
else
$fdisplay(sdram_mem,"%0h",Bank3[ee]);
end
$fclose("sdram_mem.txt");

end



// // Timing Parameters for -75 (PC133) and CAS Latency = 2
// specify
// specparam
//// tAH = 0.8, // Addr, Ba Hold Time
//// tAS = 1.5, // Addr, Ba Setup Time
//// tCH = 2.5, // Clock High-Level Width
//// tCL = 2.5, // Clock Low-Level Width
////// tCK = 10.0, // Clock Cycle Time 100mhz
////// tCK = 7.5, // Clock Cycle Time 133mhz
//// tCK = 7, // Clock Cycle Time 143mhz
//// tDH = 0.8, // Data-in Hold Time
//// tDS = 1.5, // Data-in Setup Time
//// tCKH = 0.8, // CKE Hold Time
//// tCKS = 1.5, // CKE Setup Time
//// tCMH = 0.8, // CS#, RAS#, CAS#, WE#, DQM# Hold Time
//// tCMS = 1.5; // CS#, RAS#, CAS#, WE#, DQM# Setup Time
// tAH = 1, // Addr, Ba Hold Time
// tAS = 1.5, // Addr, Ba Setup Time
// tCH = 1, // Clock High-Level Width
// tCL = 3, // Clock Low-Level Width
//// tCK = 10.0, // Clock Cycle Time 100mhz
//// tCK = 7.5, // Clock Cycle Time 133mhz
// tCK = 7, // Clock Cycle Time 143mhz
// tDH = 1, // Data-in Hold Time
// tDS = 2, // Data-in Setup Time
// tCKH = 1, // CKE Hold Time
// tCKS = 2, // CKE Setup Time
// tCMH = 0.8, // CS#, RAS#, CAS#, WE#, DQM# Hold Time
// tCMS = 1.5; // CS#, RAS#, CAS#, WE#, DQM# Setup Time
// $width (posedge Clk, tCH);
// $width (negedge Clk, tCL);
// $period (negedge Clk, tCK);
// $period (posedge Clk, tCK);
// $setuphold(posedge Clk, Cke, tCKS, tCKH);
// $setuphold(posedge Clk, Cs_n, tCMS, tCMH);
// $setuphold(posedge Clk, Cas_n, tCMS, tCMH);
// $setuphold(posedge Clk, Ras_n, tCMS, tCMH);
// $setuphold(posedge Clk, We_n, tCMS, tCMH);
// $setuphold(posedge Clk, Addr, tAS, tAH);
// $setuphold(posedge Clk, Ba, tAS, tAH);
// $setuphold(posedge Clk, Dqm, tCMS, tCMH);
// $setuphold(posedge Dq_chk, Dq, tDS, tDH);
// endspecify

endmodule

仿真结果

我们可以看到基于 sdram_model.v 运行了 201us 个周期后,modelsim 上打印信息显示我们初始化的操作是正确的。

仿真波形如图所示:

小结

我们依芯片手册成功实现了 sdram 的上电初始化,接下来我们将继续进行后续的操作,我们将尽快更新~

附件

SDRAM 仿真模型文件:点击下载,提取码:yihx

By Ricky

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